Factsheet: Calculating groundwater quality state

What do we mean by 'state'?

On LAWA, we use the term 'state' to describe a site's current conditions. For a given indicator, the ‘state’ is an estimate of the concentration or value that you might expect to find in the groundwater if you were to take a sample from a well today.

How is state calculated for our groundwater quality sites?

The state value presented for nitrate-nitrogen, dissolved reactive phosphorus, chloride and electrical conductivity for each groundwater quality monitoring well on LAWA is based on the median of the monitoring results from the last five years (2018-2022).  All of the results from a given well for a given indicator are sorted from highest to lowest value, and the median is taken as the middle value in the rank, or the average of the two middle values if there are an even number of results.  For E. coli, the results are represented by whether E. coli was detected in any sample collected between 2018 and 2022.  Here state is represented as 'not detected' (E. coli were below detection limits in all samples) or 'detected' (E. coli were detected in at least one sample). 

In order to provide the most complete picture of the data we have available, LAWA presents state from whatever data is available, whether the well has been sampled many times or only once. If only one sample was collected during the five-year period, then the value from that one sample will be presented as the median (or detected/not detected for E. coli).

Because of this, caution should be used in interpreting state for wells that have few data points, and/or if samples have not been collected during each season (winter, spring, summer and autumn) over the five-year period.  You can see the monitoring history for a well site by selecting the indicator you are interested in.

How is state presented for groundwater quality sites?

State values are colour-coded on LAWA for each indicator. In general, lower values are represented by a lighter colour, and higher values are represented by a darker colour.


The thresholds were based on the Aesthetic Value (AV) of 250 mg/L in the Aesthetic Values for Drinking Water. Chloride concentrations greater than the Aesthetic Value can affect the taste of the water. There are three categories on LAWA:

  • 0 to 125 mg/L (up to half the AV)
  • > 125 to 250 mg/L (up to the AV)
  • > 250 mg/L (greater than the AV)

More information about chloride is available in this factsheet.

Dissolved Reactive Phosphorus

There are no environmental or health thresholds for DRP concentrations in groundwater, so the thresholds on LAWA are simply based on the distribution of the data. Roughly one third of the wells presented have median concentrations in each of the following three categories:

  • 0 to 0.010 mg/L
  • > 0.010 to 0.025 mg/L
  • > 0.025 mg/L

More information about DRP is available in this factsheet.

E. coli

On LAWA, E. coli results in groundwater are compared to Drinking Water Standards for New Zealand, because groundwater is commonly used as a source of drinking water. The most important thing about E. coli in a drinking-water sample is not the numerical result, but whether it is detected at all. If it is detected, it indicates the presence of faecal material in the water and the risk that other harmful pathogens may also be present. In a broad sense, that risk increases with higher E. coli counts, but even an E. coli count of 1 in a 100 mL sample indicates a risk, and it exceeds the New Zealand drinking-water standard.

LAWA groups the state values as one of the following:

  • Detected: E. coli was detected (1 or more E.coli in a 100 mL sample) in one or more samples from the well during 2018-2022
  • Not detected: E. coli was not detected (<1 E. coli in a 100 mL sample) in any sample from the well during 2018-2022 

More information about E. coli is available in this factsheet.

Electrical conductivity

Electrical conductivity, which measures how well water conducts electricity, is reported in units of microSiemens per centimetre (μS/cm).  It is closely related to the total concentration of salts dissolved in the water, and it provides a useful, inexpensive indicator of changes in groundwater quality over time.  There are no environmental or health thresholds for electrical conductivity in groundwater.  LAWA separates electrical conductivity values into four ranges:

  • 0 to 150 μS/cm: low values, indicating minimal concentrations of salts leached from the land surface or the aquifer material
  • 150 to 250 μS/cm: moderate values, indicating the presence of salts leached from the land surface or the aquifer material
  • 250 to 500 μS/cm: higher values, indicating higher concentrations of dissolved salts
  • > 500 μS/cm: values indicating concentrations that may be high enough to affect the taste of the water

More information about electrical conductivity is available in this factsheet.


LAWA groups nitrate-nitrogen concentrations based on the Maximum Acceptable Value (MAV) in the Drinking Water Standards for New Zealand (11.3 mg/L) and half the MAV (5.65 mg/L).  It also defines a lower threshold of 1 mg/L based on the distribution of the data.  Of the wells with median concentrations less than 5.65 mg/L, roughly half have median concentrations less than 1 mg/L, and half have median concentrations between 1 and 5.65 mg/L.

In summary, the four concentration ranges are:

  • 0 to 1 mg/L (low values)
  • > 1 to 5.65 mg/L (values up to half the MAV)
  • > 5.65 to 11.3 mg/L (values up to the MAV)
  • > 11.3 mg/L (values greater than the MAV)


Note that the MAV of 11.3 mg/L for nitrate-nitrogen in drinking water is equivalent to 50 mg/L of nitrate.

More information about nitrate-nitrogen is available in this factsheet.

What does the groundwater quality state tell us?

When plotted together on a map, the state results give us a general picture of the state of groundwater quality at a regional or national scale. They help us to identify areas where groundwater quality is good or degraded, and they help to identify areas where intervention may be needed to help improve groundwater quality.

The results from an individual well are less useful on their own. They do give a picture of the groundwater quality at one point within the aquifer – the zone immediately outside the screen of the monitoring well – but it is very difficult to determine the factors influencing the groundwater at that site-specific scale. This is why regional council data are much more valuable when considered at an aquifer or regional scale.

Note also that the monitoring data reported on LAWA tends to be biased toward wells with higher contaminant concentrations. Regional councils tend to focus on wells with known contamination or high risk of contamination, rather than spending their limited resources monitoring water of good quality and low risk.