Threats to estuaries

Estuaries are particularly vulnerable because of their position between land and sea. Activities on land such as farming, land clearance and development of urban areas can lead to excess nutrients, sediments and contaminants washing in via rivers and stormwater drains. On the water, activities like dredging and fishing can remove large numbers of fish and shellfish, damage seafloor habitats and release toxic contaminants into the estuary.