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Fortrose Estuary

Fortrose or Toetoes Estuary is a medium-sized, “shallow short residence tidal river estuary” (SSRTRE) with a moderate sized tidal lagoon at its seaward end (area 500 ha). It discharges to Toetoes Beach at Fortrose. Situated at the mouth of the Mataura and Titiroa Rivers, it drains a large and primar­ily agricultural catchment. The estuary is bordered by grazed pasture and duneland and has extensive mudflats (50% of estuary exposed at low tide) and saltmarsh areas.

The estuary is popular for fishing, shellfish collection (primarily cockles), duck shooting, boating, bathing and bird study.

Overall the estuary express signs of eutrophication, the process by which an entire body of water, or parts of it, becomes progressively enriched with minerals and nutrients, particularly nitrogen and phosphorus, and ongoing losses of high value seagrass habitat. Localised blooms of the green macroalgae (Ulva spp.) are common in the estuary.

Monitoring is carried out in the Fortrose Estuary at two sites. Site A and B have been monitored since 2003 and are sampled once each year (during summer) for mud content, trace metals in sediment, and macrofauna along with other sediment characteristics.

Estuary summary

What makes my estuary unique?

Explore the characteristics of this estuary


Estuary characteristics

  • Total area
    500 hectares
  • Key rivers
    • Mataura River
    • Titiroa Stream

What's happening upstream?

See results from monitored river quality sites influencing this estuary

River quality

What's happening upstream?

The physical characteristics and health of estuaries are influenced by the rivers and streams flowing into them. For instance, when it rains the mud and contaminants generated on land can be washed into rivers and eventually flow into the estuary. The health of our rivers and streams can therefore be very important for Estuary Health, and understanding the upstream pressures can help with interpreting estuary monitoring data.

Monitoring is undertaken for a range of river health indicators (e.g., water quality and ecology) in many catchments across the region. Where there are monitored river catchments that influence this estuary, these are shown below. You can click through to view monitoring results from these River Quality sites to see current state and how health has changed over time.

What surrounds my estuary?

See land cover information from monitored catchments that surround this estuary

Land cover

What surrounds my estuary?

The physical characteristics and health of estuaries are influenced by local geography and the way we use our land. This is because estuaries are the receiving environments for many of our land use activities. Land cover information can be used as an indicator of land use, therefore knowing the surrounding land cover can help us understand which pressures might be affecting Estuary Health.

Where there is land cover information available for nearby catchments, these are listed below. These figures show the types of vegetation and built or natural features that surround the estuary margins and the rivers that flow into this estuary. You can click through to the Land Cover topic to see these land cover classes broken down into further detail, and view changes over time.

Mataura River

What do the Broad Land Cover Classes mean?

Land cover information on LAWA is grouped into land cover classes at two levels of detail – broad and medium. For this overview we are showing the six broad-level classes for the catchment.

  • Forest

    Inclusive of; indigenous and exotic forest.

  • Scrub / shrubland

    Inclusive of; indigenous and exotic scrub / shrubland.

  • Grassland / other herbaceous vegetation

    Inclusive of; tussock and exotic grassland and other herbaceous vegetation.

  • Cropland

    Inclusive of; cropping / horticulture.

  • Urban / bare / lightly-vegetated surfaces

    Inclusive of; natural bare/lightly-vegetated and artificial bare surfaces, and urban area

  • Water bodies
Monitored sites 2

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